The incidence of new type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although children with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more likely to develop diabetes than their uninfected peers, previous reports did not distinguish between T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Kendall et al. study confirms an increased risk of new T1DM in children (≤18 years) after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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Kendall et al. used the TriNetX Analytics Platform, which contains anonymized electronic health records from >90 million patients in 14 countries, to identify 285,628 children diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 2020 and December 2021. These children were matched for age, sex, self-reported ethnicity, self-reported race, and family history of diabetes in 285,628 children diagnosed with other respiratory infections (a known risk factor for T1DM). New diagnoses of T1DM were more common in the SARS-CoV-2 cohort than in the respiratory disease cohort one, three and six months after infection. The increased risk of T1DM after SARS-CoV-2 infection persisted when this cohort was compared to children who had other care experiences (fractures or visits to a good child).
These findings raise concerns about post-SARS-CoV-2 increases in the risk of other autoimmune diseases and provide the basis for risk-benefit discussions about the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric populations.
Original reference: JAMA Net. Open 5e2233014 (2022)